x-metodo akceptata

Usona Esperantisto

Dumonata bulteno de Esperanto-USA

Artikoloj de aŭtoro “Grady, D. Gary”

  • Three Little Words
    The tiny words da, po, and si cause students of Esperanto trouble out of proportion to their size. None of them has an exact equivalent in English, and rules for using them can be confusing enough as to require some explanation. Even experienced speakers sometimes misuse them.
  • Considering the languages students already speak
    It’s possible to teach a foreign language without taking into account the languages one’s students already know. But the language(s) a student already speaks can hinder or help learning a new language.
  • Translation for learning
    In the last century or so, translation exercises have fallen out of fashion. Now, however, the language teaching community is coming around to the idea that there’s a place for translation in language teaching after all.
  • La eterna progresanto
    Years ago, Father Guido Sarducci (a fictional character played by comedian Don Novello) said he wanted to start a “Five Minute University.” It would be based on the idea that everything the average college graduate remembers five years after graduation can be learned in about five minutes (allowing 20 seconds for spring break).
  • Is it possible to learn and teach Esperanto at the same time?
    Gary describes a recent pedagogical experiment in Australia with a “learn-as-you-teach” approach to language instruction.
  • Esperanto at the Movies
    One way of adding a little variety to an Esperanto class or a local group meeting is to watch a bit of a film or television program in or about Esperanto.
  • What should an Esperanto course teach?
    In centuries past it was common for language courses to emphasize grammar. In fact, language textbooks themselves were often called “grammars,” and in British and American schools there was so much emphasis in the early grades on learning grammar that we still sometimes refer to elementary schools as “grammar schools.”
  • Reading for Learning
    As we all know from the experience of our own childhoods, it’s possible to learn the basics of a language without doing any reading… that said, reading has major advantages for a language student. We can read at our own pace, stopping to puzzle over a sentence, re-read it, look up a word, or make notes. Reading is also likely to expose us to a wider vocabulary.
  • Competency-Based Education
    The basic idea… is to base your teaching on a list of things a student needs to know and to be able to do—so-called “competencies.” For example, in a beginning Esperanto course being able to pronounce the sound made by each letter would probably be one of the competencies we would want to teach.) Good teachers—and good authors of textbooks and courses—do something like this instinctively, even if they don’t think in exactly these terms.
  • False friends
    Probably the most time-consuming part of studying any language is developing a vocabulary, so it’s always a relief to encounter a familiar word… But not every word that looks familiar is all that close in meaning.
  • Video classes
    One evening most weeks, some Esperanto speakers here in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina get together for dinner and face-to-face conversation. The most frequent participants come from Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill… and Santa Fe.
  • Participles
    It’s easy enough to explain what a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb is, but defining participle is not so easy. Dictionaries typically say a participle combines traits of an adjective and a verb, but that explanation isn’t very clear. It also overlooks the fact that participles can be used as other parts of speech—such as adverbs in Russian and Hungarian.
  • Gender in Esperanto
    Why should all the sex-specific words in Esperanto be masculine by default? Why do we derive the word patrino from patro and virino from viro? Why not make the base word gender neutral and employ suffixes for both male and female?
  • Alternatives to traditional language classes
    Language teaching in the traditional sense has for the most part meant classroom instruction, either as part of a broader curriculum or as a stand-alone course. In recent decades, especially in the U.S., this approach has been in decline for a variety of reasons, including school budget problems and shifts in priorities.
  • In the Mood
    Many Esperanto speakers, notably those who come from an English language background, have trouble with verbal moods. Today’s schools often ignore the subject, and it doesn’t help that the term subjunctive in English is applied to two different moods, thus making it harder than it needs to be.
  • Games for students
    One way to liven up a class (or a club meeting) is to introduce a game. The more a game involves speaking, the more suited it is to language teaching.
  • The Ilya Frank Method
    Ilya Frank, a Russian trained as a German language teacher, has introduced an interesting technique for adapting books to be read more easily by foreign language students. Frank’s basic idea is to imbed the translations right in the text, so there’s no need to stop reading to consult a dictionary.
  • La Cseh-metodo
    Probably the most famous and successful Esperanto teacher in history was Andreo Cseh. A Hungarian born and raised in Romania, Cseh learned Esperanto as a teenager and quickly became very active in the Esperanto community.
  • Approaches to classroom instruction
    Gary provides a brief survey of historical trends in language instruction, and their application to teaching Esperanto.